Franklin County is proud to be named for Benjamin Franklin, American founding father, writer, printer, diplomat, activist, and scientist. But, to date, proof of a visit from Mr. Franklin to the county has not been found. Yet, besides the name, there is a connection between Benjamin Franklin and Franklin County. The connection is with Benjamin Chambers, who selected Franklin’s Philadelphia Gazette to advertise sale of lots in the town he was prepared to establish.
Public Notice of Land by Benjamin Chambers Advertised in Benjamin Franklin’s Philadelphia Gazette
Notice is hereby given to the Public, that there is a town is laid out on Conegogig Creek, on both sides of the Great Falling Spring, where is falls into said creek, by Benjamin Chambers, of Cumberland County. Lots may be had on reasonable terms and Firm Deeds granted for them by said Chambers: the day appointed for drawing of said lots is the 28th day of June inst.. which is a Thursday [1764} . The situation of this town is very good for water and stone, both free and marble, and sand all handy to the spot, and a well timbered part of the country adjoining it; within said town is a good Gristmill, Sawmill, and Grindstones going by water. The articles of the Town shall be read on the day appointed for the drawing of the Lots, and the terms of the sale published by me.
Franklin County was the 14th county of Pennsylvania. As the colony of PA grew, the original PA counties of Bucks, Chester, and Philadelphia Counties were divided into more counties. Lancaster grew out of Chester, Cumberland grew out of Lancaster, and Franklin grew out of Cumberland. Franklin County came into being on September 9, 1784, and the town laid out on “Conegogig Creek” (Conococheague Creek) was named the county seat in the legislation, forming Franklin County.
James Smith, who was born in Mercersburg, another frontier settlement in Franklin County, was captured in 1755, at age eighteen, as he was building the Braddock Road. Smith was taken captive by Caughnawaga Indians and was adopted by the tribe to replace a fallen warrior. While living with the tribe, he learned the ways of Indian warfare. In 1760, James Smith was freed in a prisoner exchange.
At the end of the French and Indian War, the Indian attacks along the frontier lessened. But, within two to three years, the attacks increased due in part to indiscriminate trading. Trading companies didn’t particularly care who paid for their goods, so guns, powder, lead, hatchets and knives ended up with the Indians. These goods were used against the settlers. The British issued permits to the traders without considering the danger such trade brought to the settlers on the frontier.
James Smith gathered a group of men who wanted to protect their land and their families and trained them to fight Indian style – using the cover of trees, bushes, fences—the very opposite of the formal British style of fighting in open lines. The men James Smith gathered were called Black Boys, painting their faces just as the Indians did. The Black Boys began stopping supply wagons and inspecting for weapons.
In March 1765 and May 1765, James Smith and the Black Boys burned contraband supplies—those items that would be used to attack the frontiersmen and their families. The traders sought help from the British at Fort Loudoun. Each incident brought confrontation between James Smith, his Black Boys, and the British soldiers of Fort Loudoun. The British captured the Black Boys; and in turn, the Black Boys captured the British. Prisoners were exchanged, but the British did not return the captured colonist’s guns—nine in all and a major point of contention to the frontiersmen.
On November 16, 1765, tensions peaked, and James Smith and the Black Boys attacked Fort Loudoun. At 7 PM, Fort Loudoun was surrounded by men shooting guns and yelling all night. More men joined the contingent and by 10 PM, one hundred Black Boys closed in on the fort, firing on all corners continuously. The British had little ammunition on hand, so the men were ordered not to fire. During the siege, the British soldiers only fired one return shot.
After two days of attack, a surrender of the frontiersmen’s weapons was arranged, and in return, James Smith and the Black Boys ceased the attack of Fort Loudoun.
Approaching Letterkenny Chapel, the bell tower, the quoin- brickwork, and the curved arches draws the eye because it is a different. It is not typical for the Cumberland Valley. With a second look, it is easy to see the Italian inspiration in the design, but how and why is a church of Italian architecture here? It is an amazing piece of Franklin County and American history.
Before America entered World War II, the U.S. military sought locations for ordinance depots. Letterkenny Township in Franklin County PA was selected because of its proximity to the Atlantic seaboard and Washington DC. The depot displaced about 1000 of the 70,000 county residents, and took 21,000 acres of farmland. U.S. Secretary of War Henry Stinson issued the directive to establish Letterkenny Ordinance Depot on December 18, 1941, just days after the attack on Pearl Harbor. By September 1942, the depot was in operation.
After Italy surrendered in September 1943, 1250 repatriated Italian prisoners of war came to Letterkenny Depot. These men missed their home and loved ones. They turned to their faith and sought support of the clergy, who suggested channeling their energy into something positive. Using materials from the farmhouses and barns removed from the land to build the depot, the repatriated Italian POWs built Letterkenny Chapel, inspired by the churches of their homeland.
Today, the Italian-style chapel stands as a reminder of something very good that came out of a very difficult time in the world. It links two places, once enemies, to a shared history and memories.
Letterkenny Chapel is maintained by the United Churches of Chambersburg and is adjoined by the Franklin County Veterans and 9/11 Memorial Park, which are the launching point of the Franklin County Military Trail of History. Each year, four services are held at Letterkenny Chapel—Armed Forces and POW/MIA Day Service in May, the 9/11 Remembrance Service in September, Veterans Day Service in November, and Christmas Eve Service in December.
Yes, it will be the name of the Franklin County Visitors Bureau’s new home–the 11/30 Visitors Center. But long before the visitors bureau took up residence at the crossroads of downtown Chambersburg, 11/30 was where Molly Pitcher Highway meets the Lincoln Highway. It is the Crossroads of the Country, one of the major American intersection with a storied history told throughout the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. It is Route 11–the Molly Pitcher Highway– and Route 30–the Lincoln Highway. It is the center of Franklin County and the Memorial Square of Chambersburg.
In the 18th century, 11/30 was the crossroads of the nation as Sots-Irish and German immigrants pushed the boundary of the frontier westward. As the century moved forward, 11/30 was a colonial gateway transporting early Americans toward their dreams of a better life. 11/30 was bustling with taverns and inns; liveries, wheelwrights, and blacksmiths, and stores with all forms of supplies for the journey to a new life.
In the 19th century, steam power brought the trains and 11/30 served as a busy hub for the newest mode of transportation. When Civil War touched the nation, the square of Chambersburg was the meeting place of Confederate General Robert E. Lee and his Commander of the Third Corps, General A.P. Hill. On this site, the Confederate leaders conferred on movement of the Union troops, changed plans to move towards Harrisburg, and decided to move east toward Gettysburg. The pivotal history that followed is well-known. Then, on July 30, 1864, a year later Confederates returned to Chambersburg, ransomed the town, and with the ransom not met, burned the core of town. American spirit prevailed, and the town rebuilt.
At the beginning of the 20th century as Americans discovered the automobile and the individual freedom it brought, their paths again traveled through this crossroads of the country–11/30, the meeting point of the oldest east-west road and one of the oldest north-south routes.
11/30 is Main Street America, reminiscent of a scene in a Rockwell painting. It is parades, festivals, and First Fridays. 11/30 is the launching point to explore Franklin County’s Franklin trails of history, arts and architecture, recreation, natural beauty, fresh foods and the warm hospitality of communities like Chambersburg, Greencastle, Mercersburg, Shippensburg, and Waynesboro.
In 1764, Franklin County PA was the frontier of colonial America, inhabited by Scots-Irish, German, Irish, and Welsh immigrants and remained the hunting grounds of Native American tribes, in particular the Lenni Lenape, known also as the Delaware. The unrest along the frontier was ever-present as a steady influx of settlers occupied the frontier lands of Franklin County, seeping more and more into the land Great Britain promised would remain Native American territory. A year earlier in western Pennsylvania, Chief Pontiac attacked British forts because of the encroaching settlements, and British Colonel Henry Bouquet responded by attacking the Native Americans, spurring an increase of Indian attacks on European settlers of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. It became all-out warfare. On the morning of July 26, 1764, as Enoch Brown and eleven students settled into their studies, the war came to the doorstep of the small, log school house in present-day Antrim Township, near Greencastle PA.
Three Delaware entered the school , clubbed and scalped schoolmaster Enoch Brown and his eleven pupils. Archie McCullough, one young boy, would survive by pretending to be dead as the horror happened around him. When the Delaware left the schoolhouse, Archie managed to hide himself in the fireplace until he was certain they would not return and then made his way to a nearby stream to wash his head in the cool waters. The quietness of the schoolhouse signaled nearby farmers to investigate, bringing help to Archie and discovery to the victims.
Today, the site of so much anguish is a much more peaceful place. It is now Enoch Brown Memorial Park– 3-acres of greenery, which includes a memorial where the story is told on the four faces of a monument, a series of walking trails, and a pavilion.
The park is located off Williamson Road, which is just off Route 11, at 2730 Enoch Brown Road in Greencastle.
If the walls of the Franklin County Old Jail could talk, the Franklin County Visitors Bureau is sure it would want to hear the stories. Located at 175 East King Street in Chambersburg PA, the Old Jail celebrates 200 years in 2018.
Built in 1818 as Franklin County’s third jail, the property’s exterior appearance illustrates the balance and proportion of Georgian architecture. Inside, the old cell walls bear the hand scratched messages of former inmates, who marked off the time they served and recorded their misgivings. The jail housed debtors, thieves, and murderers. The gallows sit in the limestone exercise year and reach back to a time when hangings were social gatherings. By 1920, it became inactive.
Over the years, folklore retells that the Old Jail housed freedom seekers within its walls. It definitely secured John Cook, one of John Brown’s conspirators, before he was transported to Charles Town for his trial and, in the end, his hanging. Just a few years later, in 1862, the Old Jail stood as J.E.B Stuart burned the nearby shops of the Cumberland Valley Railroad and raided its warehouses. As Civil War continued in 1863, it stood unharmed when Robert E. Lee and 70,000 Confederate soldiers headquartered blocks away in the center of town before heading east to Gettysburg. A year later, it was again left untouched as the flames of “Tiger” John McCausland’s burning of Chambersburg destroyed the majority of the town.
In 1971, after serving more than 150 years as the Franklin County Jail, the Old Jail was retired. Today, the physical property houses the Franklin County Historical Society, which is responsible for maintaining the historic property and sharing the history that happened in and around the building. In addition to serving as a museum house, the it houses a genealogy archive.
The Old Jail holds history, is history, and makes history in 2018.